Occult Holidays And Sabbats:
The electronic version issued November contains several factual corrections; several informational footnotes which were not included in the paper version; and a few additions to the bibliography.
The Regents were a corporation empowered to act as trustees of Columbia College originally chartered as King's College in and closed during the Revolutionary War and of every other college and academy incorporated in the state thereafter. The Regents originally consisted of the governor, other state officers, and the mayors of New York and Albany, ex officio, plus twenty-four persons appointed for life.
This unwieldy body soon got involved in the day-to-day administration of Columbia. In a Regents' committee recommended that colleges and academies have their own trustees, and that the Regents be given broader responsibilities for overseeing education in New York.
A compromise bill became law. The act empowered the Regents to "visit and inspect all the colleges, academies, and schools" in the state, award higher academic degrees, hold and distribute funds, and exercise other powers of a corporation. Until the board was reorganized under the unification act ofnineteen Regents were elected for life terms by joint ballot of the Legislature; in addition, the governor and lieutenant governor served as Regents.
Since the University of the State of New York has been continued by the Constitution, which states that its corporate powers "may be increased, modified, or diminished" by the Legislature. The Regents' protean power to "visit and inspect" member institutions of the University has taken various forms.
During the nineteenth century the Regents exercised oversight by reviewing statistical reports from academies and colleges; only occasionally did Regents actually visit an institution. The Regents adopted standards for incorporating private academies and collegesand required academies to offer acceptable programs in order to receive aid from the Literature Fund, established in The Legislature made the Regents trustees of the State Library and the collections of the State Museum in andrespectively.
During the later nineteenth century the Regents developed educational standards for academies and high schools statewide, through use of the Regents examinations and syllabi. These innovations were discussed and promoted by the University convocations, meetings of educators held annually starting The scope of the University expanded significantly in andwhen the Regents obtained legislation giving them the right to incorporate and supervise libraries, museums, correspondence schools, and other educational institutions.
The Secretary to the Board of Regents had long administered the affairs of the University. Starting in the Secretary then the redoubtable Melvil Dewey, also head of the State Library supervised full-time inspectors of secondary schools, libraries, colleges, and other institutions reporting to the Regents.
Unification of the University and Department of Public Instruction. New York State also developed a statewide system of public schools, under the common school law of Gideon Hawley, the first Superintendent of Common Schools, organized the system, distributed school aid from the Common School Fund, and prodded local officials to set up school districts and submit reports.
Hawley was dismissed in for political reasons, and thereafter the Secretary of State served as the Superintendent of Common Schools. In the Legislature created a Department of Public Instruction, headed by a Superintendent elected jointly by the Senate and Assembly for a three-year renewable term.
The new Department had a small staff which carried on the work of advising local school authorities, allocating state aid, and preparing reports to the Legislature. The responsibilities of the Regents and the state officials in charge of the common schools overlapped.
The Regents had a vague statutory authority to oversee all education in the state. The latter official shared with the Regents the responsibility to inspect and report on academies.
The rapid development of public high schools after the s caused administrative confusion. The high schools were operated by union free or city school districts, which the law made subject to visitation and inspection by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. However, the academic programs of all secondary schools were under general supervision of the Regents.
Unification of elementary, secondary, and higher education under one administration was considered and rejected by the constitutional conventions of andand proposed in legislative bills from time to time. Outright competition between the Regents and the Department of Public Instruction became intense and public during the s, when the Superintendents of Public Instruction lobbied to have all secondary education placed under their control.
But during the same decade the University's activist program under Secretary Melvil Dewey won the Regents many new supporters.The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina is a state-recognized tribe of obscure tribal origins numbering approximately 60, enrolled members, most of them living in Robeson and the adjacent counties in south-central North initiativeblog.com Lumbee Tribe was recognized as a Native American tribe by the United States Congress in under conditions that it agreed to at the time, which did not allow them.
04Apr12 - Inaugural Bilderberg meeting held in Nazis Oosterbeek Hexenkessel ten years after Arnhem slaughter. As we have already heard, TWO chairmen - former SS officer Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Lord Peter Carrington were both heavily involved in the Nijmegen/Arnhem Operation Market Garden debacle of September (see below).
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FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION: HISTORY. The agency now known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.) has an interesting history. While today the agency enjoys extraordinary prestige and status, and is quite encompassing in its authority and jurisdiction, the agency has a rather humble, and at times scandalous and .
However, residential segregation is actually the result of racially motivated law, public policy, and government-sponsored discrimination. The result of state action, residential segregation reflects an ongoing and blatant constitutional violation that calls for explicit remedy.
History of Britain's First Opium Wars. Introduction This is the setting for what follows below: narcotics are pouring in from abroad through a well-organized, efficient group of smugglers.