March 19, Idealism Idealism is the oldest system of philosophy known to man. Its origins go back to ancient India in the East, and to Plato in the West. Its basic viewpoint stresses the human spirit as the most important element in life. The universe is viewed as essentially nonmaterial in its ultimate nature.
It tries to discover the nature of truth and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life. It also examines the relationships between humanity and nature and between the individual and society. Philosophy arises out of wonder, curiosity, and the desire to know and understand.
Philosophy is thus a form of inquiry--a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation, and speculation. The term philosophy cannot be defined precisely because the subject is so complex and so controversial.
Different philosophers have different views of the nature, methods, and range of philosophy. The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. In that sense, wisdom is the active use of intelligence, not something passive that a person simply possesses.
The first known Western philosophers lived in the ancient Greek world during the early 's B. These early philosophers tried to discover the basic makeup of things and the nature of the world and of reality.
For answers to questions about such subjects, people had largely relied on magic, superstition, religion, tradition, or authority. But the Greek philosophers considered those sources of knowledge unreliable.
Instead, they sought answers by thinking and by studying nature. Philosophy has also had a long history in some non-Western cultures, especially in China and India. But until about years ago, there was little interchange between those philosophies and Western philosophy, chiefly because of difficulties of travel and communication.
As a result, Western philosophy generally developed independently of Eastern philosophy. The Importance of Philosophy Philosophic thought is an inescapable part of human existence.
Almost everyone has been puzzled from time to time by such essentially philosophic questions as "What does life mean? Even a person who claims that considering philosophic questions is a waste of time is expressing what is important, worthwhile, or valuable.
A rejection of all philosophy is in itself philosophy. By studying philosophy, people can clarify what they believe, and they can be stimulated to think about ultimate questions. A person can study philosophers of the past to discover why they thought as they did and what value their thoughts may have in one's own life.
There are people who simply enjoy reading the great philosophers, especially those who were also great writers. Philosophy has had enormous influence on our everyday lives. The very language we speak uses classifications derived from philosophy.
For example, the classifications of noun and verb involve the philosophic idea that there is a difference between things and actions. If we ask what the difference is, we are starting a philosophic inquiry. Every institution of society is based on philosophic ideas, whether that institution is the law, government, religion, the family, marriage, industry, business, or education.
Philosophic differences have led to the overthrow of governments, drastic changes in laws, and the transformation of entire economic systems.
Such changes have occurred because the people involved held certain beliefs about what is important, true, real, and significant and about how life should be ordered.
Systems of education follow a society's philosophic ideas about what children should be taught and for what purposes. Democratic societies stress that people learn to think and make choices for themselves. Nondemocratic societies discourage such activities and want their citizens to surrender their own interests to those of the state.
The values and skills taught by the educational system of a society thus reflect the society's philosophic ideas of what is important. The Branches of Philosophy Philosophic inquiry can be made into any subject because philosophy deals with everything in the world and all of knowledge.
But traditionally, and for purposes of study, philosophy is divided into five branches, each organized around certain distinctive questions. The branches are 1 metaphysics, 2 epistemology, 3 logic, 4 ethics, and 5 aesthetics. In addition, the philosophy of language has become so important during the 's that it is often considered another branch of philosophy.
Metaphysics is the study of the fundamental nature of reality and existence and of the essences of things. Metaphysics is itself often divided into two areas--ontology and cosmology.
Ontology is the study of being. Cosmology is the study of the physical universe, or the cosmos, taken as a whole.A definition for starters: Education is the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life.
- Dewey and the contemporary New Zealand education John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont, on 20 October He was an American psychologist who was grouped with Pierce and William James as founders of Pragmatism and supported the idea of pragmatism and was anti-foundational notion of .
Philosophy of education: Philosophy of education, philosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education, focusing on both basic philosophical issues and more specific issues arising from educational practice.
Read more about the history, problems, issues, and tasks of the philosophy of education in this article.
John Dewey (/ ˈ d uː i /; October 20, – June 1, ) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology.A Review of General Psychology survey, published in John Dewey, lauded as the 'Modern Father of Experiential Education,' was a forward educational philosopher whose ideas still influence education today.
EPI Score Sheet: Below, the numbers you circled for each statement () recorded and totalled under appropriate perspective.
The highest total indicates your educational philosophy.