This definition, by itself, tells us nothing about the standard by which we establish or measure right and wrong. The centuries have seen many different approaches to ethics; none seem to be satisfactory.
In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy. In order to understand individual behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition.
Integrated human behavior model I have formulated an abstract model of human behavior which explains the process that produces the individual differences. Cognition is the thought process in humans that describes how the information we constantly acquire is transformed, stored and used as knowledge in future decision making.
It includes a wide range of mental processes like visual imagery, language, problem solving, decision making etc. The brain receives the stimuli from the external environment through the sense, which is immediately registered in our sensory memory, which is large but keeps the information for few seconds only.
The observation process tries to match the information in the sensory memory with the previous knowledge and creates a perception of the stimuli, thereby abstracting useful information from the sensory memory. This abstracted information then passes to the short-term memory or the working memory, which also caches the related knowledge from the long-term memory.
The short-term memory has slightly longer latency than the sensory memory, it is needed only till the reaction of the stimuli. The long term memory has enormous capacity and is the primary knowledge base.
The other two important parameters are the desired outcome and the required response time to the stimuli. At the center of the analytical mind is a myriad of cognitive processes that operate sequentially or in parallel, in complex permutations in order to satisfy these primary constraints.
The consequence of this entire cognitive activity is a response to the environmental stimuli, which is the observed as the behavior of the individual. Finally, the resulting behavior is feed backed into the memory; it modifies the existing perceptual knowledge, seeds a new one or the stimuli and its response is simply ignored Dimensions of cognitive psychology The cognition can be characterized by considering the process itself and its robustness.
At a higher level of abstraction, the thinking can be characterized as rational or emotional, while its robustness is determined by it stability.
Rational Vs Emotional Thinking Rational thinking is a response based on process of logical reasoning; it involves some form of mathematical or statistical knowledge where the process has implicit proof of its validity. Attribution is one of the rational processes that involve determining the reason or cause of an observed behavior.
Emotional thinking is a response based on how a person feels about the object in question. Neurologically, emotions follow a short cut pathway to limbic response, bypassing the other cognitive thought processes.
It can be considered as most primitive response when dealing with incomplete and uncertain sensory data. However, emotions have considerable influence on decision making and other cognitive processes even with existence of alternate rational reasons.
Stable Vs Evolving Experiences Every stimuli creates a response which is stored in the long-term memory, repetition of the same stimuli over a period of time, hard wires the response. These patterns of stimuli and response form a stable section of our cognitive processes, thus as the person ages, more and more responses get hard-wired.
On the other hand, stimuli that have little or no previously recorded responses are in the evolutionary stage, the response might change depending upon the cumulative degree of success of the previous responses.
In the organizational social system, the relationship between manager and the employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional. If this bi-directional process is successful, it would create a behavioral congruence between manager and subordinate and would be a positive outcome.
Otherwise it would lead to dissatisfaction and frustration for both of them and would eventually lead to end of their relationship through job termination.Factors that influence individual ethics Family influences The ethical behaviors of an individual are starting to form since their childhood period.
This is because children will response to their perception of their parents' behaviors since childhood stage. Ethical Decision Making: A Process Influenced by Moral Intensity Sarah Hope Lincoln, PhD (cand) focused on understanding the process of ethical decision making and factors that influence a decision and choosing to act.
In addition, if external factors influence an individual’s.
This lesson will help you understand the factors that affect ethical behavior in the workplace and allow you to consider your own ethical decision. different factors when making a decision faced with an ethical dilemma, but regardless of whatever the focus of concern may be, they are ultimately responsible for responding and acting with moral resolve.
The ethical view of an individual is formed by the contribution mostly of the following factors: 1. Family influences: Family influences play a key role in determining an individual.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics, and sexual ethics.