SHARE Excessive use of mobile phones causes students to fare poorly in elementary, junior high and high school, not only because it makes them lose their concentration due to a lack of sleep, but also because it apparently compromises what they have studied, researchers say. Students who spend several hours each day staring into mobile phones or smartphones tend to change their sleeping habits and stay up late to use the devices, education ministry research published Thursday showed. The research was conducted last November with 23, participants from the fifth grade of primary school up to the third year of high school, at public schools nationwide.
Non-pure abjads such as Hebrew and Arabic script and abugidas use diacritics for denoting vowels.
Hebrew and Arabic also indicate consonant doubling and change with diacritics; Hebrew and Devanagari use them for foreign sounds. Devanagari and related abugidas also use a diacritical mark called a virama to mark the absence of a vowel. Emoticons are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially Japanese emoticons on popular imageboards.
Alphabetization or collation[ edit ] Main article: Collation Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order. French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries.
Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries e.
However, when names are concerned e. For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Collating sequence.
Generation with computers[ edit ] Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. This has led to fears internationally that the marks and accents may be made obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data.
Depending on the keyboard layoutwhich differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters.
Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on.
Such a key is sometimes referred to as a dead keyas it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it. On Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; Option-e followed by a vowel places an acute accent, Option-u followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, option-c gives a cedilla, etc.
Diacritics can be composed in most X Window System keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software. On computers, the availability of code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics.
Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a method to input it. With Unicode, it is also possible to combine diacritical marks with most characters. Languages with letters containing diacritics[ edit ] The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.
Baltic Latvian has the following letters: With the elimination of these accents, the new orthography relies on the reader having prior knowledge of pronunciation of a given word.
Irish uses only acute accents to mark long vowels, following the spelling reform. Breton does not have a single orthography spelling systembut uses diacritics for a number of purposes.
The circumflex is used to mark long vowels, but usually only when the vowel length is not predictable by phonology.
Belarusian, BulgarianRussian and Ukrainian have the letter. Belarusian and Russian have the letter ё. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced byalthough it has a different pronunciation.
The use of instead of ё does not affect the pronunciation. In Belarusian the replacement by is a mistake, in Russian, it is permissible to use either or ё for ё but the former is more common in everyday writing as opposed to instructional or juvenile writing.
All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x.Teacher Classroom Practices and Student Performance: How Schools Can Make a Difference The author thanks the Milken Family Foundation which, through its generous financial support, The study related teacher characteristics to student test scores, taking into account.
"When examining the effect of computer use on student learning, it is important to consider how well a specific use is aligned with the measure of learning," added the study's lead author, Laura O. Chapter 2 Reviews of Related Literature and Studies This chapter includes the ideas, finished thesis, generalization or conclusions, methodologies and others.
Those that were included in this chapter helps in familiarizing information that are relevant and similar to the present study. Author homepage. Computer Games as a Part of Children's Culture One effect was the founding of a new section called "Sociology of Childhood" in the American (alone as well as with others) and show a greater interest in games and related issues.
"Friends" are the most important advisers and mediators in game-related matters (Figure 9). CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Student Performance Galiher. Based from the related materials found no study has found out to study on the same topic except for the books that cater to its parts, many have studied about the employment status, job satisfaction and the factors affecting job performances.