So which is it? Is diversity and inclusion making us more democratic? Or more frustrated or gridlocked?
Prevalence[ edit ] In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences. It is often associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", and "the politics of recognition".
It is also a matter of economic interests and political power. It is within this context in which the term is most commonly understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate. Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration.
The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies.
Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states — notably the Netherlands and Denmark — have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism.
In some, communalism is a major political issue. The policies adopted by these states often have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, and the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building — for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a 'Malaysian race' by Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to truly express who they are within a society, that is more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues.
Historically, support for modern multiculturalism stems from the changes in Western societies after World War II, in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights revolution", in which the horrors of institutionalized racism and ethnic cleansing became almost impossible to ignore in the wake of the Holocaust ; with the collapse of the European colonial systemas colonized nations in Africa and Asia successfully fought for their independence and pointed out the discriminatory underpinnings of the colonial system; and, in the United States in particular, with the rise of the Civil Rights Movementwhich criticized ideals of assimilation that often led to prejudices against those who did not act according to Anglo-American standards and which led to the development of academic ethnic studies programs as a way to counteract the neglect of contributions by racial minorities in classrooms.
The contact hypothesis in sociology is a well documented phenomenon in which cooperative interactions with those from a different group than one's own reduce prejudice and inter-group hostility.
James Trotman argues that multiculturalism is valuable because it "uses several disciplines to highlight neglected aspects of our social history, particularly the histories of women and minorities [ Instead, he argues that multiculturalism is in fact "not about minorities" but "is about the proper terms of relationship between different cultural communities", which means that the standards by which the communities resolve their differences, e.
Criticism of multiculturalism Critics of multiculturalism often debate whether the multicultural ideal of benignly co-existing cultures that interrelate and influence one another, and yet remain distinct, is sustainable, paradoxical, or even desirable.
Putnam conducted a nearly decade-long study on how multiculturalism affects social trust. We act like turtles. The effect of diversity is worse than had been imagined. I think in the long run we'll all be better.
Relatively homogeneous societies invest more in public goods, indicating a higher level of public altruism. For example, the degree of ethnic homogeneity correlates with the government's share of gross domestic product as well as the average wealth of citizens.
The idea that "diversity" is one of the country's great strengths is now so firmly rooted that virtually anyone can evoke it, praise it, and wallow in it without fear of contradiction. It has become one of the great unassailably American ideas, like democracy, patriotism, the fami. Second, IDEA focuses primarily on democratic processes and institutions rather than value-based/ philosophical debates and discussions. portunity and strength within societies. Cultural diversity, diaspora communities and trans- Democracy And Diversity Expert Consultation Report Bolivia. The idea that diversity is one of the country’s great strengths is now so firmly rooted that virtually anyone can evoke it, praise it, and wallow in it without fear of contradiction. It has become one of the great unassailably American ideas, like democracy, patriotism, the family, or Martin Luther King.
Case studies of the United States, Africa and South-East Asia find that multi-ethnic societies are less charitable and less able to cooperate to develop public infrastructure. Moscow beggars receive more gifts from fellow ethnics than from other ethnies [ sic ].
A recent multi-city study of municipal spending on public goods in the United States found that ethnically or racially diverse cities spend a smaller portion of their budgets and less per capita on public services than do the more homogeneous cities.
Diverse peoples worldwide are mostly engaged in hating each other—that is, when they are not killing each other.Democratic values support the belief that an orderly society can exist in which freedom is preserved.
But order and freedom must be balanced.
In the early days of the French revolution, the members of the third estate agreed to stick together in the face of opposition from the king and nobles. In the American context, the development of pluralism as an idea is intertwined with questions of democracy, religion, race and ethnicity, and assimilation.
The founders set out to create a political system that could accommodate a multitude of different groups and interests while producing collective agreements that commanded allegiance. Russel B. Nye, The Almost Chosen People: Essays in the History of American Ideas (East Lansing, ), includes a chapter entitled "American Society and the Idea .
Aug 05, · The study comes at a time when the future of the American melting pot is the focus of intense political debate, from immigration to race-based admissions to schools, and it poses challenges to advocates on all sides of the issues. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves ideologies and policies which vary widely, ranging from the advocacy of equal respect to the various cultures in a society,  through policies of promoting the maintenance of cultural diversity,  to policies in which people of various ethnic and religious groups are addressed by the authorities as defined by the group to which they .
Cultural democracy is an idea with a fairly long but obscure history, at least in the United States. It was first espoused in the 's and 's by progressive .